Research Journals

About The Journal

The JK International Journal of Management and Social Science is a peer reviewed, refereed bi-annual international journal that provides publication of articles in all areas of Management and Social Science through research and its relevant appropriation and inferential application. The journal hopes to accelerate development and governance in both developed and developing countries. The maximum length of intended articles for publication in the journal is 5000-6000 words. A short abstract of around 150 words with 6-8 key words should precede the introduction. We appreciate innovative and evolutionary contemplation over popular management ethics, differing from the humdrum bulk of monotonous content. The journal welcomes publications of high quality papers, book reviews and reports.

Aims and Scope: The JK International Journal of Management and Social Science (JKIJMS) is a bi-annual journal brought out by JK Business School, Gurugram. It is a refereed Journal dedicated to publish empirical research that tests, extends or builds management and social sciences theory and contributes to practice. All empirical methods-including but not limited to qualitative, quantitative, field, laboratory and combination methods are welcome. To be published in JKIJMS a manuscript must make strong empirical and theoretical contributions and highlight the significance of those contributions to the management and social science fields. JKIJMS is not restricted to any particular discipline, level of analysis or national context

© 2017 JK Business School, Gurugram

Publication Information : The JK International Journal of Management and Social Science is published bi-annually. All editorial correspondence should be addressed to:

Prof. (Dr.) Sridhar Manohar (Editor)
JK Business School,
JK Chowk, 1200 mtrs on Damdama Lake Road,
Off- Sohna Expressway, Gurugram-22102 (Haryana)

or sent by email to 

The views expressed in the articles are those of the respective authors. Neither JKIJMS nor the JK Business School, Gurugram can accept any responsibility for, nor do they necessarily agree with the views expressed in the articles. All copyrights are respected. Every effort is made to acknowledge source material relied upon or referred to, but JKIJMS does not accept any responsibility for any inadvertent omissions. JKIJMS also does not endorse the contents of the advertising material that appears in the journal

JK Business School
JK Chowk, 1200 mtrs on Damdama Lake Road,
Off- Sohna Expressway,
Gurugram-122102 (Haryana)
Mob: 9643808804

Copyright: Authors must cede copyright of the article as finally published to JKIJMS if it is accepted for publication, and certify that all copyright requirements in respect of material used directly or indirectly in the article have been duly met. Copyright rests with JKIJMS in respect of the material submitted for its use and dissemination in any form or medium, individually or in any collection or other configuration, print, audio-video, electronic or otherwise. Except as authorised, no part of the material published in JKIJMS may be reproduced, print or stored in retrieval systems, or used for commercial or other purposes.

Language (usage and editing services): Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).

Editorial & Administrative Address:
JK Business School
JK Chowk, 1200 mtrs on Damdama Lake Road,
Off- Sohna Expressway,
Gurugram-122102 (Haryana)

Subscription queries:
Editorial queries:

Current Issue

Editorial Advisory Board
Prof. (Dr.) Sanjiv Marwah
JK Business school
Editor – in – Chief
Prof. (Dr.) Sridhar Manohar
JK Business school
Prof. Samir Chatterjee
Professor, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA
Dr. Yam B. Limbu, Montclair State University, USA
Associate Editor, International Journal of Business and Applied Sciences
Dr. Xavier, Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Ex. Director IIM-Ranchi
Dr. Sanjeev Tripathi
Professor, IIM, Ahmedabad
Dr. Ravi Shanker
Chairperson, IIFT, New Delhi
Dr. Satinder Bhatia
Chairperson, IIFT, New Delhi
Prof. Mark Goh Keng Hock
Director, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Prof. Rudhra
Assistant Professor, Thapar Institute of Management, Patiala
Prof. D. K Malhotra
Nydick Family Term Chair and Director of MBA Programme
Philadelphia University, Philadelphia, PA 19144
Dr. Ganesh Kumar
Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Plantation Management, Bangalore
Dr. Shekar Raju
Professor, Iowa State University, 2351 Gerdin Business Building Ames, IA 50011-2027
Brig. (Dr.) Ajay Mehta
Professor, JK Business School, Gurugram, Haryana

Managing Editor– R.K.Tiwari, JK Business School, Gurugram
IT Coordinator: Prof. Vishnu Sharma, JK Business School, Gurugram
Editorial Assistant: Prof. Geeta Malhotra, JK Business School, Gurugram


We take pleasure to introduce JK Business School, Gurgaon, one among the best management Institutions in India, imparting value based quality management education. JKBS is ranked amongst top 50 business schools in India and awarded “Asia’s Top Industry Anchored Business School” by ASSOCHAM in Dec 2016

As a part of competitive research oriented education, JK Business School is coming out with its biannual online refereed journal “JK International Journal of Management and Social Science”, wherein articles of Research Scholars/Academicians/Business Executives etc. will be published online. The Journal has highly illustrious and reputed experts on its advisory board, who are constant source of guidance for us.

You are requested to submit your ideas as a form of original article, book review, conceptual papers, Meta-analysis papers and qualitative works from the following topics given at the end. The submission must follow all the author guidelines, ethical guideline and attached with all supporting document in PDF format.

The Chief Editor of “JK International Journal of Management and Social Science” has complete authority in publishing online based on the comments of the reviewers.

Preparing an article
Arrangement of Contents

1. Cover Page / Title Page
2. Sponsor approval (if any)
3. Abstract(300 words maximum)
4. Keywords ( up to 4)
5. Manuscript ( Must follow the format of reporting introduction, review of literature, methodology, results, discussion, interpretation, future scope and conclusion)
6. List of Tables (included within the manuscript)
7. List of Figures (included within the manuscript)
8. List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Nomenclature
9. Appendices
10. References

Cover Page / Title Page
a) Title
b) Name of the author(s)
c) Short abstract with keywords
d) Name, designation and organization the author currently associated with.
e) Brief description about the author(s)

Sponsor Letter
It is mandatory document if the research has been conducted under the support (either financially/non-financially) of any organization/research institutions. The JK International Journal of Management and Social Science advises the authors to endorse acknowledgement/approval letter from the funding agencies to mark their support as contribution to your research work.

It is also known as Executive Summary/synopsis. However, herein after ‘Abstract’ will be used by all authors for the purpose of commonality. It should be one page extract (300 words) of the research work, using single spacing, with Font Style Times New Roman and Font Size 12. The abstract will not contain any footnotes but need to have at least 4 keywords.

The format of the abstract follows: 

The language must be simple and must sound genuine and written as a third person. The main text will be divided into several chapters and, if need be, each chapter may be further divided into different sub-chapters. In the chapters the following aspects will be ensured:-
a) Each chapter should be given a befitting title.
b) Tables and figures in a chapter should be placed in immediate vicinity of the reference where they are quoted.
c) The author must know as to what does a footnote demand? It includes every footnote, even if the opinion or interpretation is one which he/she has independently come upon in own thinking. In cases where a group of facts or opinions are treated together, one paragraph will serve for all material. Where more than one source is involved for a single item in the text, one note will serve to acknowledge several sources. The general principles to be followed are as under:-

I. The author’s name appears in direct form with surname first, as in bibliography.
II. The title of a book or a periodical is underlined. This corresponds to italics in print. Even a relatively short piece of writing which has an independent publication is considered a book.
III. When an item is first mentioned in a footnote, full bibliographical information is to be given. Authors must remember that every source cited in footnotes must appear in final references. However, function of reference must be clearly distinguished from footnotes. The latter are used to cite authority for specific statements. They designate the exact place where authoritative utterance is located.

A table is a tabulated numerical data in the body and needed to be presented within the body of the manuscript immediately after the reference that is the inner test needed to cite the table included (for eg. see table 4). The table must have a heading with table number in order and must be placed before the table begins. One and a half spacing should be used for typing the matter under this heading.

The figure must have a heading with figure number in order and must be placed after the figure representation. The author need to cite the source if the figure if taken from other articles/Web Pages/newspapers. The layout will be as per ‘List of Tables’. One and a half spacing should be used for typing the matter under this heading. The figure needed to be presented within the body of the manuscript immediately after the reference that is the inner test needed to cite the figure included (for eg. see figure 4).

List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Nomenclature.
It will be ensured that only standard symbols, abbreviations etc. are used. The abbreviation or the symbol needed to be prefixed with the full meaning at the first present in the text and later the symbols/abbreviations can be used within the manuscript (for example Structural Equation Modelling (SEM))

These are provided to give supplementary information, which is in addition to the information contained in the main text. Appendices are to be marked as Appendix A/Appendix B. If there is supplementary information to the Appendix, that is attached as Annexure to that particular Appendix. These are to be numbered as Annexure l/Annexure 2 and so on. Appendices, tables/questionnaire/supporting materials appearing in appendices, will be numbered and referred at appropriate places just as in the case of chapters. Appendices are required to bear the title of the work reported and the same title shall be made in the contents page also.

1. The function of reference must be distinguished from that of footnotes. A reference gives its description once for all, whereas a footnote supports a specific statement by a particular citation. These functions do not fully overlap. Therefore, report should always include formal references, and strictly reference matter.
2. A reference is complementary to footnotes as well as to the report as a whole. If the reader wants to look up a reference that he/she finds in footnote, he/she can turn to the references to find the full description of the work.
3. A reference is endorsed as per the following details:-

Citation of footnote:
Please follow the following format for citing footnotes:
• Tatavarti (1987) for citing single author reference
• Tatavarti and Narayanan (1992) for citing references having two authors
• Tatavarti et al (2004) for citing references having more than two authors

The references should be typed as follows:
1. Journals: Give complete information like name(s) of all author(s), year, Title of the paper, Journal, year of publication, volume, number and pages.
2. International Conferences: Give all information like name(s) of all author(s), year, Title of the papers, Conference details like organizers, the publisher, Editors of the proceedings, page No. and place.
3. Books: Give all information like name(s) of author(s), year, Title of the Book, Book details like, publisher, page no. and place.
All references should be typed in alphabetical order at the end of thesis.

Formatting an Article
The succeeding paragraphs contain broad guidelines for formatting an article. Top bottom and right margins for a page should be one inch. Left margins for a page should be 1.5 inch. Double-space reports, unless specified explicitly. Headings
Headings are the titles and subtitles within the actual text. Headings are like the parts of an outline that have been pasted into the actual pages of a report or other document. They are an important feature of writing: they alert readers to upcoming topics and sub-topics, help readers find their way around in long reports and skip what they are not interested in, and break up long stretches of straight text.
Headings are also useful for author. They keep him/her organized and focused on the topic. When authors begins using headings, the impulse may be to haphazardly add headings after he/she has written the rough draft. Instead, visualize the headings before starting the rough draft, and insert them in as one writes.
Any standard office documentation software will provide default heading styles. Using title default headings makes it easier and enables to automatically generate a table of contents for a report. Refer to the pre-set menus on typefaces and the section on formatting features in documentation software. Headings should, not be underlined. Use bold face.

When two or more words form a single unit of meaning to modify another word, authors should use hyphens to connect the words. For instance, vis-a.vis; face-to-face communication; state-of-the-art technology; salesperson; and customer relationship; etc.

Quotation Marks and Punctuation
When using quotation marks, punctuation should go inside the quotes. Authors will use double quote marks in all cases, except when he/she has a quotation within a quotation, in which case use a single quote mark. The possessive is used to indicate ownership, e.g., the company’s profits. A common error occurs with dates. The following example is incorrect: “In the late 1970’s and mid-1980’s, with the goal of reducing quality costs, General Electric started implementing Six Sigma.

Authors should allow a single space following a punctuation mark, such as a period, comma, and colon, etc. Using two spaces is a holdover from the days of using typewriters for reports. That/Which/Who Usage
The complete article needs to be written as a third person language. A common mistake in writing is confusing that and which. That is restrictive and which is non-restrictive. Some authorities believe that it does not make any difference. And, others subscribe to the belief that there is need to distinguish the two for precise grammar. Student must be more thoughtful while using these two words.

Page Specification:
Left Margin: 1.5 inch
Right Margin: 1 inch
Top Margin: 1 inch
Bottom Margin: 1 inch
Chapter Heading – Font Size: 16, Bold, Times New Roman
Section Heading – Font Size: 14, Times New Roman, CAPS
Subsection Heading – Font Size: 12, Times New Roman, CAPS

Page numbers 
All text pages as well as program source code listings should be numbered using Arabic numerals at the bottom center of the pages.

Times New Roman 12pt font should be used consistently throughout the text. Captions for tables and figures can be in smaller fonts, but not smaller than 10pt.

Using Numbers
Current usage is that you spell out numbers that can be expressed in one or two words. The exceptions are when you are dealing with technical quantities or amounts, percentages, street addresses, etc.

No paragraph should have its opening line at the bottom of a page. A clear, consistent, but not too large a separation must be provided between the paragraphs throughout the thesis.

Submitting an article
All submissions should be in PDF format. The manuscript is requested to be submitted as separate files without any details or references on the author appearing in the draft. The authors who wish to submit their original work can send his/her article to
Before submitting the article authors are requested to make sure that they have gone through the Author Guidelines completely and prepared the article as per the guideless. Papers which do not follow the format style would not be considered for evaluation. The authors are requested to submit the following as separate file:
1. Title Page (title, Author details, brief bibliography of each author)
2. Short Abstract (300 words)
3. Manuscript (including references and Annexure)
4. Supporting Material (For evaluation)
5. Supporting Material (not for evaluation)
6. Any other materials that needed to be provided to the readers
7. Sponsor approval letter

With respect to the professional and academic procedures “JK International Journal of Management and Social Science” will not accept any of the submitted articles/ideas if it is not an original work of the author and it has been previously published in any other outlets in the present form or modified form. Further authors are requested not to submit an article which is currently under consideration with any other journal or publisher see ethical guidelines. The author owns the copyright and hence he/she is requested to sign the AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT, thereby he/she complies with the conditions.

If/when an author’s work/idea is accepted for publication in “JK International Journal of Management and Social Science” the author copyright agreement has to be submitted by filling the complete details of the author, co-author and/any funding agencies who supported for the research along with the final version of the paper. We would expect a “Corresponding Author” to be responsible for the collection and provision of the copyright assignment from each author.

Ethical Guidelines
To appreciate the manifestations of being ethical, an author must know the difference between ethical and unethical practices. A few concepts are being discussed below (The definitions are reproduced from the ‘Handbook of Technical Writing’ by Brusaw et aI., 1993).

“To use someone else’s exact words without quotation marks and appropriate credit, or to use the unique ideas of someone else without acknowledgment, is known as plagiarism. In publishing, plagiarism is illegal; in other circumstances, it is, at the least, unethical. You may quote or paraphrase the words or ideas of another if you document your source. Although you need not enclose the paraphrased material in quotation marks, you must document the source. Paraphrased ideas are taken from someone else whether or not the words are Identical. Paraphrasing a passage without citing the source is permissible only when the Information paraphrased is common knowledge in a field (Common knowledge refers to historical, scientific, geographical, technical, and other type of information on a topic readily available in handbooks, manuals, atlases, and other references)”

Example of Plagiarism Includes:
1. Word-for-word copying
2. The use of a particularly unique term or concept used by the author directly from other works without citing the author/source
3. The paraphrasing or abbreviated restatement
4. False citation
5. False data
6. Unacknowledged multiple submission of an article
7. Unacknowledged multiple authors or collaboration
8. Self-plagiarism/double submission:

“When you paraphrase a written passage, you rewrite it to state the essential ideas in your own words. Because you do not quote your source word for word when paraphrasing, it is unnecessary to enclose the paraphrased material in quotation marks. However, the paraphrased material must be properly referenced because the ideas are taken from someone else whether or not the words are identical. Generally, the majority of the notes you take during the research phase of writing your report will paraphrase the original material. Paraphrase only the essential ideas. Strive to put original ideas into your own words without distorting them.”

“When you have borrowed words, facts, or idea of any kind from someone else’s work, acknowledge your debt by giving your source credit in footnote. Otherwise you will be guilty of plagiarism, also, be sure you have represented the original material honestly and accurately. Direct word to word quotations are enclosed in quotation marks.” Clearly, taking sentences/ paragraphs from sources such as journals, articles, books, reports, proceedings, theses, reports, and inten1et, mixing them to camouflage the source, changing some of the words, or rearranging the sentences is plagiarism. Picking sentences from various sources to form paragraphs is also plagiarism. Similarly, if there is a thesis/report already submitted and is closely aligned with student’s work, copying sections such as literature survey, methodology, theory etc, with or without changes is also plagiarism. Student must carry out own literature survey, write own interpretation of theory or methodology after reading the relevant material, or quote from earlier reports or the relevant material using quotation marks. If one does not have access to an article (appeared in a language other than English, or in an inaccessible or unavailable journal), but knows about its contents through its review or references to its contents in another article, one can refer to this material but must refer to both the articles”. Taking experimental data and pictures from others’ work or from the internet without citing the authors or the website is a far more serious issue. Graphs and schematics, already published in a work, can be reproduced after taking written permission from the copyright holder.

Student can alternatively re-plot the same data and prominently cite the authors in the figure/ table captions as well as in the text; under no circumstances should the student leave a reader with the confusion that this could be student’s data. The written permission from the author(s), although not necessary, is still a desirable option. It also helps to establish contacts. When students use programs written by others with or without modifications, the report must clearly bring this out with proper references, and must also reflect the extent of modification introduced by him/her, if any. Only a program, which student writes from scratch, does not require source to be identified. Identification of source in all other cases is must. Inclusion of a computational flow chart in the report is highly recommended. However, the material presented in the report must be self-explanatory. A reader must be able to reproduce student’s experimental, theoretical, computational, and simulations results based on the information presented in the report.

Review Process 
Once the author has submitted the article the following process are carried out
1. The author would be acknowledged for their submission within 3 days with an unique manuscript reference id
2. The paper would be evaluated initially by the preliminarily editor
3. Proofreading Process
4. On clearing the initial process the manuscript would be sent to the subject experts (reviewers)
5. The reviewers are blindly selected and will be given 3 months time to evaluate.
6. Based on the comments the author would be intimated on the following criteria:
(1) Recommend the acceptance of the paper in its present form
OR (2) Recommend the acceptance of the paper to the condition that the candidate

(a) Furnishes satisfactory clarifications to the queries (listed separately in the detailed report)
(b) Incorporates the minor modifications/revision suggested in the detailed report, but the corrected paper need not be referred
(c) The paper requires major modifications/revision as suggested in the report. after modification the paper may be referred
(3) I do not recommend the acceptance of the paper for the reasons detailed in my report

The acceptance of the paper to be published is completely based on the review board suggestions and the final call would be taken by the Chief Editor of “JK International Journal of Management and Social Science”. The information would be conveyed to the authors immediately after the review process and they are requested to imply the modifications (if needed any) and resubmit with all the supporting documents. Any further details needed feel free to contact

The Research Cell
JK Business School
Damdama Lake Road, Village Bhondsi
Gurgaon, Haryana
Tel: 0124-2266472

Note : If you have problems in the review process, you can directly contact Dr. Sridhar Manohar at only after 3 months of submission.

Publisher: All business correspondence, enquiries and subscription orders should be addressed to

JK Business School
JK Chowk, 1200 mtrs on Damdama Lake Road,
Off- Sohna Expressway,
Gurugram-122102 (Haryana)
Mob: 9643808804


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Author Details:

Abstract Submission- (Word Limit- 300) (PDF Format) (See other guidelines for the abstract).

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